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Napoleon on Trial

A collection of resources for students in World History to use in preparation for "The Napoleon Trial"

CRAP test

Developed by librarians and referenced in Howard Rhinegold's "Crap Detection 101," the CRAP test helps you evaluate sources based on their "Currency, Reliability, Authority, and Purpose/Point of View". 


-  How recent is the information?
-  How recently has the website been updated?
-  Is it current enough for your topic?


-  What kind of information is included in the resource?
-  Is content of the resource primarily opinion? Is it balanced?
-  Does the creator provide references or sources for data or quotations?


-  Who is the creator or author?
-  What are the credentials?
-  Who is the publisher or sponsor?
-  Are they reputable?
-  What is the publisher’s interest (if any) in this information?
-  Are there advertisements on the website?

Purpose / Point of View

-  Is this fact or opinion?
-  Is the creator/author trying to sell you something?
-  Is it biased?

Resource types

Primary sources

These are contemporary accounts of an event, written by someone who experienced or witnessed the event in question. These original documents (i.e., they are not about another document or account) are often diaries, letters, memoirs, journals, speeches, manuscripts, interviews and other such unpublished works. They may also include published pieces such as newspaper or magazine articles (as long as they are written soon after the fact and not as historical accounts), photographs, audio or video recordings, research reports in the natural or social sciences, or original literary or theatrical works.

Secondary sources

The function of these is to interpret primary sources, and so can be described as at least one step removed from the event or phenomenon under review. Secondary source materials, then, interpret, assign value to, conjecture upon, and draw conclusions about the events reported in primary sources. These are usually in the form of published works such as journal articles or books, but may include radio or television documentaries, or conference proceedings.

Defining questions

When evaluating primary or secondary sources, the following questions might be asked to help ascertain the nature and value of material being considered:

  • How does the author know these details (names, dates, times)? Was the author present at the event or soon on the scene?
  • Where does this information come from—personal experience, eyewitness accounts, or reports written by others?
  • Are the author's conclusions based on a single piece of evidence, or have many sources been taken into account (e.g., diary entries, along with third-party eyewitness accounts, impressions of contemporaries, newspaper accounts)?

Ultimately, all source materials of whatever type must be assessed critically and even the most scrupulous and thorough work is viewed through the eyes of the writer/interpreter. This must be taken into account when one is attempting to arrive at the 'truth' of an event.

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